Inflammatory Bowel Diseases(IBDs) Center
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs) is a group of chronic diseases with unknown etiology which involved gastrointestinal tract in billion people worldwide and affect their quality of life. In the past, these diseases were more seen in developed countries, but from 50 year ago up to now, developing countries are also affected. It seems that the important cause of this change is similarity of life style in developing country to developed ones. Among them, increase in using animal sources of protein and lipid, stress, and smoking has more impacts. Although, the causes of IBD are unknown, but, it seems that genetic, environment and immune system play vital role in inducing and developing of disease and its related symptoms. Nutritional status is one of the environmental factors. It seems that in the past decades, increasing in the use of cow milk (instead of mother milk in neonates), and also elevation of lipid consumption and decline in fiber use (fruits and vegetables) were being accompanied with increase in IBDs rate. It is noteworthy that there are no specific dietary regimens for prevention or treatment of IBDs, however, some regimens can control its related signs and symptoms.
There are two types of IBDs: Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). These two types were involved the intestines and induced inflammation and ulcer in the internal surface of the intestines. CD can affect all parts of gastrointestinal tracts, from mouth to the intestine and induced diarrhea, stenosis, fistula (abnormal canal between two parts of the body), malabsorption and surgery (for removal of affected part of the intestine). UC only involved large intestine and commonly induced bloody diarrhea. Inflammation affected whole of intestinal wall and therefore produce bloody diarrhea. However, it cannot create fistula and may be needs surgery for removing affected parts of the intestine.
The most common signs of IBDs are diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever and fatigue. This disease is chronic and shows recurrent relapse and remission. In relapse state, the disease is active and the signs are increased. On the other hand, in remission state, the inflammated parts of the intestine are recovered and related signs are declined or cured. In this step, the diseases are called silent.
The first and best treatment for IBDs is having appropriate dietary regimen. It must be remembered that IBDs will not treated completely, but, the silent phase can be elongated with well dietary regimen and using appropriate drug. A balanced dietary regimen is vital for being health and improving the diseases conditions especially in chronic forms such as IBDs. Also, this balanced dietary regimen has important values in treatment strategy.
To having a balanced dietary regimen, the body requirements are evaluated by doctor and nutritional specialist based on gender, age and disease conditions. Indeed, not only the volume of food is not important but also it is important that daily body requirements to calorie, protein carbohydrate (sugar) and nutritional elements are supplied.
A balanced dietary regimen consists of all different dietary groups. The protein sources include meat, fish, chicken meat, and dairy food (if tolerated). Carbohydrate sources include bread, starch, spaghetti, fruits and vegetables. Also, the lipid sources are oil and spaghetti.
It is not required for dietary limitation, if one food would not deteriorate the signs of IBDs in one patient while this food increases the severity of IBDs in another patient. This phenomenon is due to individual difference and also the difference in the location of involvement in CD and UC. Inflammation in UC only affects the colon and produce surface inflammation. But in CD, the inflammation involves whole wall thickness of the all segment of gastrointestinal tract from mouth to the intestine. Therefore, regulation of dietary regimen is differing from one patient to another and similar regimen cannot be used for all IBDs patients.
For finding appropriate dietary regimen according to the patient condition, an exact consult between patient and doctor is necessary in addition of the period of try and error. Also, the dietary regimen may be changed because of the changes in the course of disease.The best way is having a small note book and registration of drugs that aggravate the symptoms of the disease. Patients should note that because having a diet for every person with the disease is different therefore, getting the information from various sources and people must be presented and consulted with doctor before use. Although proper diet differs from person to person, but, general tips about proper diet is existed. Proper diet and having a healthy lifestyle can help patients to control the symptoms of the disease andlonger intervals between disease activity sectors.
Fatty foods: Consumption of excess fried foods, butter, fatty meats, fatty Mayonnaise and margarine must be avoided, because fatty foods are not fully absorbed through the digestive system and digest difficulty and can cause diarrhea and intestinal gas, Use of fatty foods should be reduced, especially if some parts of the intestines have been removed by surgery. Steaming of the food and its consumption can be used instead of frying food.
It is better to replace the saturated fats by non-saturated ones. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature and become a little solid in the refrigerator. Unsaturated fats, as well as to reduce the bad cholesterol (LDL). The bad cholesterol (LDL) is the type of cholesterol thatless amount of it is better and good cholesterol (HDL) is cholesterol that the higher amount of it is better.
Food hygiene: The consumption of rotten foods should really be avoided. Use mineral water or boiled water that contain no germs. Vegetables and lettuce should be disinfected prior to use.
Water: Consume appropriate volume of water per day to prevent dehydration. Also, use of high volume of water can prevent constipation. Indeed, it is possible to being dehydrate in IBDs due to diarrhea. If you not used appropriate amount of water, your kidneys do not work properly. It seems that kidney stone formation in CD is due to chronic dehydration. Dehydration and loss of elements in the diarrhea can induce fatigue. Therefore use of high amount of water especially in warm and hot water that sweating is increase, is highly recommended. 60-70% of your body compromised from water. Most parts of the circulation system is water. Also, muscles, lungs and brain contains high amount of water. Water is required for thermoregulation. In blood, water is required for supply oxygen and dietary ingredients to the all parts of the body and drains it waste product. Also, water is required for protection from joints and other organs. Our body is excreting water due to urine, sweat and breathes in if you have more exercise, the amount of water which your drained is more. Therefore, for having a healthy body you must to drink enough fluids and the best choice is water. Sugar drinks have more calories and a group of soft drinks will also provide minerals which useful to the body.